transformer uses and function

{\displaystyle I_{\text{P}}V_{\text{P}}=I_{\text{S}}V_{\text{S}}} Z https://www.facebook.com/businessbrokerageblogs/ . An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. =

A basic transformer consists of two windings around a shared core.

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Transformer&oldid=984358946, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. P L When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied AC waveform.

[66][67] When employed in parallel connected electric distribution systems, closed-core transformers finally made it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes, businesses and public spaces. Transformers vary widely in size and power, and power grid transformers can weigh hundreds of tons.

Where for a step-down transformer a > 1, for a step-up transformer a < 1, and

It is not directly a power loss, but results in inferior voltage regulation, causing the secondary voltage not to be directly proportional to the primary voltage, particularly under heavy load. The American people, from the average household to the largest industrial plants make use of transformers.

A transformer may be coated or dipped in a polymer resin to improve the strength of windings and protect them from moisture or corrosion. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. Efficient, practical transformer designs did not appear until the 1880s, but within a decade, the transformer would be instrumental in the war of the currents, and in seeing AC distribution systems triumph over their DC counterparts, a position in which they have remained dominant ever since. The development of switching power semiconductor devices made switch-mode power supplies viable, to generate a high frequency, then change the voltage level with a small transformer. [32] Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass.

On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices. [24] Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils.

Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit, including those employing methods of adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil. Transformers work solely with AC current.

At higher voltage and power ratings, shell form transformers tend to be more prevalent.

The efficiency of typical distribution transformers is between about 98 and 99 percent. Now that you know the uses and benefits of transformers, don’t you have more appreciation for them? [24][25][26] Shell form design tends to be preferred for extra-high voltage and higher MVA applications because, though more labor-intensive to manufacture, shell form transformers are characterized as having inherently better kVA-to-weight ratio, better short-circuit strength characteristics and higher immunity to transit damage. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a similar power level. [75], Westinghouse, Stanley and associates soon developed a core that was easier to manufacture, consisting of a stack of thin 'E‑shaped' iron plates insulated by thin sheets of paper or other insulating material. ′ Automatic on-load tap changers are used in electric power transmission or distribution, on equipment such as arc furnace transformers, or for automatic voltage regulators for sensitive loads. A transformer's function is to maintain a current of electricity by transferring energy between two or more circuits.

is the load impedance of the secondary circuit & [63] The Ganz factory had also in the autumn of 1884 made delivery of the world's first five high-efficiency AC transformers, the first of these units having been shipped on September 16, 1884. At much higher frequencies the transformer core size required drops dramatically: a physically small transformer can handle power levels that would require a massive iron core at mains frequency. {\displaystyle {\frac {V_{\text{P}}}{V_{\text{S}}}}={\frac {I_{\text{S}}}{I_{\text{P}}}}={\frac {N_{\text{P}}}{N_{\text{S}}}}={\sqrt {\frac {L_{\text{P}}}{L_{\text{S}}}}}=a} Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, powdered iron, or ferrite.

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Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of inductive components. This allows the frequency of the electrical energy to remain stable and unchanged.

Where V In the limit, the entire coil may be placed in a mold, and resin cast around it as a solid block, encapsulating the windings.[49]. 3). The transformer winding voltage ratio is directly proportional to the winding turns ratio.[7].

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[26], Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel. The windings are wound around a core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so that all of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings. With a voltage source connected to the primary winding and a load connected to the secondary winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated directions and the core magnetomotive force cancels to zero. [73], Although George Westinghouse had bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents in 1885, the Edison Electric Light Company held an option on the US rights for the ZBD transformers, requiring Westinghouse to pursue alternative designs on the same principles. Winding joule losses and leakage reactances are represented by the following series loop impedances of the model: In normal course of circuit equivalence transformation, RS and XS are in practice usually referred to the primary side by multiplying these impedances by the turns ratio squared, (NP/NS) 2 = a2. Transformers come in different shapes, sizes and configurations.

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